Moreover, rubella antibody was detected in 74% of hearing-impaired children versus only 18% of those with normal hearing . Rubella Serology Status Serological investigations for rubella were carried out at a local laboratory in Mbingo. AZD7687 Of the 310 subjects with complete serology, there were 162 students with hearing impairment, with a mean age of 13.0 3.0 years, and 148 students with normal hearing, with a mean age of 10.5 1.8 years. The students with hearing impairment were significantly older than those without hearing impairment in the study population ( 0.0001). Ninety students (29.0%) were positive for rubella IgG antibodies and 220 (71.0%) were negative. Hearing impaired children were seven times more likely to have positive serology (48.8%) than children with normal hearing (7.4%; 0.0001). Conversely, children with normal hearing were almost two times more likely to have unfavorable serology (92.6%) than hearing impaired children (51.2%; 0.0001) (see Physique 2). Open in a separate window Physique 2 Rates of rubella IgG seropositivity among children with and without hearing impairment AZD7687 in Northwest Cameroon. Children with hearing impairment were significantly more likely to have positive serology ( 0.0001), and children with normal hearing were significantly more likely to have negative serology ( 0.0001). 3.2. Ocular Manifestations of Rubella Fundus photographs were obtained for 549 eyes of 275 (85.9%) students. 58 (10.5%) eyes of 29 patients showed clear evidence of rubella retinopathy. Twenty-six of the 29 (89.7%) patients with rubella retinopathy had bilateral retinal disease. Twelve (2.2%) eyes were suspicious for rubella retinopathy and were given the designation of peripheral stippling, while 473 eyes (86.0%) had no evidence of rubella retinopathy. Students with rubella retinopathy were much more likely to be hearing impaired; of the 29 students with rubella retinopathy, 28 (96.6%) had impaired hearing ( 0.0001). Serologic testing suggested that positive rubella titers were associated with the presence RASGRF1 of rubella retinopathy, with 55.1% of affected children testing positive (= 0.001). Ten eyes (1.8%) showed evidence of other ocular pathology such as ocular albinism (4), toxoplasmosis (1), macular scar (1), corneal scar (1), and retinal pigment atrophy. (1). One patient had undergone previous medical procedures for cataracts (this patient also had hearing AZD7687 impairment and rubella retinopathy), while no cases of congenital glaucoma were identified. 3.3. Congenital Rubella Syndrome Status CRS status was categorized based on modified Center for Disease Prevention and Control definitions (see Section 2.1, Methods) and was available for 275 participants. The majority of subjects (= 143; 52.0%) were unaffected. There were 104 (37.8%) suspects and 28 (10.2%) probable cases of CRS (see Physique 3). Of the probable CRS cases, 57.1% (16) demonstrated positive rubella IgG, while 35.7% (10) were seronegative and 7.1% (2) did not have serology results. Open in a separate window Physique 3 Numbers of cases of congenital rubella syndrome status based on revised Center for Disease Control guidelines. 4. Discussion Congenital rubella syndrome is usually a major contributor to the global burden of preventable blindness and deafness. Cameroon currently offers immunization programs for both measles and mumps but does not cover rubella. The present study identified twenty-eight probable cases of CRS with clinical evidence in Northwest Cameroon. The present study used revised CDC guidelines to determine the CRS status of patients. Hearing status was ascertained on history without being explicitly tested, and other probable etiologies of hearing impairment were not investigated. Moreover, serological criteria described in the CDC guidelines require the demonstration of rubella virus, rubella-specific IgM antibody, or infant rubella antibody AZD7687 levels that persist at a higher level and for a longer period of time than expected from passive maternal transfer of maternal antibodies in a population of infants. The cases.